Yuan Dynasty (1271 - 1368)


Yuan Dynasty Territory


As the Sung Dynasty’s military power was declining, the Sung soldiers were even defeated by the minority races from the north of its territory. In 1127, the Sung Dynasty had to move to the south. It was then called the South Sung. Later the South Sung was conquered by the Mongolian. The Mongolian ruled over the Han people and established the Yuan Dynasty.


During the Yuan Dynasty’s short span of life, there were only two renowned calligraphers: Xien-Yu Su (who died at only 40 years old) and Zhao Meng-Fu. Zhao Meng-Fu was ambitious to revitalize calligraphy styles of the Jin and Tang Dynasties while Xien-Yu Su was focusing on creating a new personal style.



·        Xien-Yu Su    (1257-1302): He studied Zhang Tien-Si’s work first, then the calligraphy works  of the Jin & Tang Dynasties to establish his style. He inherited the spirit of the Two Wangs (Wang Hsi-Chih and his son, Wang Hsian-Chih.)


XienYuSu1.jpg (24844 bytes)    XienYuSu2.jpg (77151 bytes)



·        Zhao Meng-Fu (1254-1322): He was famous for various styles. He was a descendant of the royal family of the Sung Dynasty. He had great influence on later calligraphers in the Ming Dynasty. He and Xien-Yu Su deeply respected each other's achievement.


Zao 1.jpg (72213 bytes)    ZaoMengFu2.jpg (56309 bytes)    ZaoMengFu1.jpg (27096 bytes)


Zao 2 (a).jpg (243843 bytes)


Zao 2 (b).jpg (247502 bytes)


Buddhist  Heart Sutra


Zhang Yu ( 張雨 )

Download links of Zhang Yu's calligraphy:


http://www.9610.com/yuan/zhangyu/ (Several links on left)


Zhang Yu (1277?-1348?) was from Hangzhou in Zhejiang. He had a high reputation as a sage and was also an excellent poet whose calligraphy was said to be free from all vulgarity. He became a Taoist around the age of twenty. There were several accounts of his birth and death years and age.

He learned calligraphy from Zhao Mengfu and met other literary friends, painters, and calligraphers. His poems, calligraphy, and painting were highly regarded by Ni Zan ( ). His calligraphy was characterized by utilizing different kinds of strokes and was not confined by his teacher Zhao Mengfu and the traditional Centered Tip approach.



關于其生卒年歲問題, 歷來眾說紛紜。其生年有兩種說法: 至元十四年(1277)、至元二十年(1283)。關于其卒年, 有五種說法: 至正六年(1346)、至正八年(1348)、至正九年(1349)、至正十年(1350)、至正十二年(1352)。經考證, 張雨生卒年可推定為: 生于至元二十年, 卒于至正十年(12831350), 享年68歲。另一說為生於元世祖十四年(1277),卒於元順帝至正八年 (1348),年72歲。張雨號"句曲外史"的得名緣由概有三說, 經考辨其是以陶弘景自況也。









·        Yu He (1307-1382): He had an excellent emulation work of Wang Hsi-Chih’s Lang Ting Prologue. He also specialized in small-scale calligraphy that deeply influenced Zhao Meng-Fu.



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