Pu Jin (1893 - 1966)

English Chinese 簡介 Calligraphy 書法 Painting

 Updated: 03/10/2013

1: Pu Jin

Pu Jin was a member of the Manchu imperial family and a cousin of the last emperor of China, Pu Yi, and the renowned painter Pu Ru. Pu Jin lived through the fall of the Ching Dynasty (1644-1911) founded by his ancestors. His painting of a wearily trudging horse, and the poems inscribed on the scroll by Manchu noblemen and Chinese officials who had served the fallen dynasty, draw on artistic and literary traditions in which horses could symbolize both individuals and the Chinese empire itself. (Pu Jin's father liked to tame horses and was deeply obsessed by painting horses.)

Beginning in the Tang Dynasty, Chinese painters such as Han Gan (active ca. 740-756) specialized in images of powerful horses with muscular steeds that symbolized the military strength of the dynasty and the authority of the Tang emperors. Also beginning in the Tang Dynasty, paintings of emaciated horses came to symbolize neglected human beings, above all talented scholars who deserved, but often failed to receive, recognition and reward. These themes endured in various forms throughout the later history of Chinese painting.


"Emaciated Horse " by Pu Jin

As Pu Jin's inscription indicates, his painting is a copy of an earlier work (now in the Osaka Municipal Museum), also titled Emaciated Horse, by the scholar-painter Gong Kai ( 龔開, 1222-1307). Like Pu Jin, Gong Kai witnessed the fall of the dynasty under which he was born. When the Sung Dynasty was conquered by the Mongols, Gong Kai expressed his sadness and frustration through painting. For many centuries, his depiction of a bony old horse was seen as a reflection of his own fate as an yimin (leftover subject, 遺民), and as a poignant representation of the ill-fated Sung Dynasty, to which he remained loyal. No longer a powerful, confident animal, the horse symbolized China in decline.

Pu Jin's hanging scroll is an excellent example of the integration of painting and poetry common in Chinese culture. Although the poems added by friends, relatives, and associates of the artist postdate the creation of the painting itself, these responses to the pictorial image carry the readers and viewers into the literary and artistic traditions shared by these men.

For the ten poets who inscribed Pu Jin's Emaciated Horse between the years 1931 and 1934, the symbolism of Gong Kai's horse held special meaning: as the former subjects of the Ching Dynasty, they, too, were yimin. Enriched by learned references to Chinese horse lore and mythology, the poems also allude to new threats facing China. In 1931, the year Pu Jin made this painting, northeastern China was invaded. The following year the invaders set up the puppet state of Manchukuo (
滿洲國 ) with the deposed Ching emperor Pu Yi (1905-1967) as its titular ruler. Several of the poets hint at the conflict between their loyalty to the emperor they had once served and their desire to distance themselves from a regime controlled by foreign invaders.

Painted in dry, grayish-black ink on paper, Pu Jin's horse is set against an empty background that seems to stress the animal's frailty and isolation. Although the painting is a copy of Gong Kai's work, Pu Jin made slight alterations in his model. For example, he shows the mane hanging from the right, rather than the left side of the horse, thus exposing the gaunt muscles of the lowered neck.


Pu Jin, along with his cousin Pu Ru (1896-1963), his younger brother Pu Chuan ( 溥佺, b. ca. 1913) (http://www.aixinjueluo.com/puquan.htm), and members of the Manchu imperial family, were educated in the Chinese classics and learned traditional styles of painting and calligraphy. Highly accomplished as a copyist of paintings from the Sung and Yuan Dynasties, Pu Jin became a professor and later Dean of the College of Art at Furen Catholic University ( 輔仁大學 ) in Beijing. In addition to landscapes and horses, Pu Jin also painted tigers and human figures, including an image of Zhong Kui ( 鐘馗 ), the Demon Queller. Pu Jin was also working at  the Beijing Research Institute of Culture and History. He was also good at playing Guqin ( 古琴 ) and served as the president of the Guqin Research Association in Beijing.

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2: 生平簡介

溥雪齋,滿族,清道光皇帝的曾孫。其祖父為皇五子惇親王奕,父為貝勒載瀛。(載瀛承襲貝勒閑職,無意仕途應酬,專以馴馬、畫馬為樂,時人譽為"馬癡""馬翁".) 本名溥伒,號雪齋、雪道人、南石居士,筆名南石、邃園、樂山、松風主人、琴徒等,堂號怡清堂、松風草堂。晚年為名號一致,以字行,乃常用溥雪齋為名。幼年襲封為固山貝子( 固山貝子為爵名,清初崇德元年公元1636年,定王公以下九等爵以封宗室,固山貝子為四等爵,位次多羅貝勒,高于鎮國公 )。溥伒善畫山水,所作蕭疏淡雅,氣韻有致,年輕時畫已有名。傳世作品有《秋山圖》扇,款署:秋山圖,雪齋溥伒寫。圖錄于《名家藏扇集》。

駿馬圖 愛新覺羅.載瀛繪(載瀛是溥佺之父)
Steed by Pu Jin's Father




溥雪齋自幼酷愛文藝,人說畫如其人,雪齋先生每日晨起即寫字操琴,具有琴、棋、書、畫,養花、騎馬等多方面藝術修養。1911年始潛心于民族音樂的研究和學習。青少年時即從當時名古琴家黃勉之弟子賈潤風學彈古琴,后改彈三弦等其他樂器,經常參加演出活動直至晚年。琴藝精湛,風格洒脫。1952年被聘為北京文史館館員 (www.bjcss.gov.cn/wsgFore/gyjs/viewcs.asp?wsgcol=gyjs&memid=320)。1957年,北京中國畫院成立,被聘為名譽畫師。曾任民族音樂研究所特約演奏員,中國美術家協會員,中國文聯常務理事,美協北京分會副主席,中國音樂家協會理事,北京畫院名譽畫師,書法研究社社長,古琴研究會會長。他同時也是古琴家,四十年代曾組織古琴會,聯絡同好,切磋琴藝,使傳統古樂得以流傳發展。

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3: 書法





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Landscape by Pu Jin

More at






Horses by Pu Jin






Pu Jin's Work on Fans








Pu Jin's Tips on Painting Orchids and Horses




Other Works by Pu Jin



Pu Jin's Inscription for Chi Bai-Shu's Painting




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1. 康熙 書法 57.5133

2. 康熙 書法 16.547.5

3. 康熙 行書 11747

4. 雍正 書法 51.5120

5. 雍正 行書七言聯 15330

6. 乾隆 行書 11828.8

7. 乾隆 花卉 水墨 28.553.5

8. 乾隆 行書 9460

9. 乾隆 行書 35328

10. 乾隆 行書軸 139.860.3(廣東省博物館藏)

11. 乾隆 行書卷 8932.8 (廣東省博物館藏)

12. 乾隆 書法 34.588

13. 乾隆 紅樹山庄 95.534

14. 弘歷 行書詩軸 (廣東省博物館藏)

15. 嘉慶 行書 61.574.5

16. 嘉慶 38.566

17. 道光 7368.5

18. 道光 83.580

19. 道光 61126

20. 宣統 花卉 134.560

21. 宣統 七言聯 13531

22. 宣統 書法 62.5165

23. 宣統 花卉 10853

24. 慈禧 4823.5

25. 慈禧 楷書松壽軸 179.590(廣東省博物館藏)

26. 榮慧 67167

27. 果親王 行書 27.2212

28. 永瑢 山水 8139

29. 永瑢 嘉卉圖軸 14766.2(廣東省博物館藏)

30. 成親王 楷書七言對 12422

31. 永瑆 花卉圖軸 14.597.5

32. 成親王 書法 2516

33. 成親王 楷書軸 171.168.5(廣東省博物館藏)

34. 成親王 篆書軸 12346.5(廣東省博物館藏)

35. 惇郡王 青綠山水圖軸 51.537

36. 恭親王等 書畫扇面 15523

37. 恭親王 書法七言對 13432

38. 恭親王 書法軸 2831

39. 皇六子 山水 2554

40. 鄭親王 行書 16.754

41. 慶親王 行書七言對 16539.5

42. 豫親王 楷書七言對 12729

43. 溥儒 山水 9832

44. 溥儒 山水 30.522

45. 溥儒 山水 9225

46. 溥儒 山水 6428

47. 溥心畬 蛺蝶圖橫軸 2876.5(廣東省博物館藏)

48. 溥儒 花虫 9922

49. 溥儒 山水人物 8735.5

50. 溥儒 山水人物 6533

51. 溥儒 山水 17.651.5(廣東省博物館藏)

52. 溥儒張大千 山水人物 14156

53. 溥伒 行書七言對 16837

54. 溥伒 行書七言對 13030.5

55. 溥伒 山水 10546

56. 溥伒 蘭石 68.533

57. 溥伒 臨唐寅高人深隱圖 2573

58. 溥伒 書畫 18106

59. 溥伒 山水雙駿圖 9733

60. 溥倜 花鳥 8138

61. 溥佺 山水 4428

62. 溥佺 山水 67.528

63. 溥佐 山水八駿圖 45177

64. 弘一山水 18896.5(廣東省博物館藏)

        65. 弘涇清渭濁志事卷 64538.5(廣東省博物館藏)



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