A10: Common Notions

There are many popular notions or misconceptions about Chinese calligraphy known to the general public. Even most learned Chinese are preoccupied with some assumptions or misconceptions about Chinese calligraphy whether the notions can be correct, incorrect, appropriate, or inappropriate. Art is all about perceptions, feelings, and esthetics; they are not textbook standards or statements, or associated with one's educational degrees, social status, and political affiliations. After we have studied the works, theories, and principles of ancient Chinese calligraphy masters, we may find the following common notions or misconceptions widely held by most people.


Size of Calligraphy Write Neatly Fast Writing
Content of Calligraphy Clear Models Life of A Brush
Seals & Signatures Erasure To Be Added


Size of Chinese Calligraphy

Most people think the larger the Chinese character’s size is, the better and more expensive the work is. The artistic level of a Chinese calligraphy work is not necessarily relevant to its character size. The size only matters to those who have not learned Chinese calligraphy or who do not know how to appreciate it. Some people think that the bigger sizes give them more visual impression. However, the saying "The varieties and nuances of beauty are just within inches. ( 方寸之間,氣象萬千 )" applies to Chinese calligraphy and seals.

Character sizes around 3 x 3 inches are the easiest and most common. Characters as large as 9 x 9 inches demand a higher level of skill and physical strength. Characters smaller than 0.5 x 0.5 inches demand the highest level of precision in regard to skills, physical strength, and optimal personal well being. That's why Chinese calligraphers specializing in Small Characters are very rare throughout each dynasty.  Just as technique is the fundamental of art, precision is the soul of techniques.

A work of Small Characters demands the highest level of skill.

Many Chinese calligraphy practitioners often try to impress the average audience with super large writings. However, as long as delicacy, spirit, and strong will are embodied in each strokes, the size of writing is not a decisive factor to rate the work.


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Write Neatly Inside Grids

Some people prefer writing to be neatly arranged, not scattered.

Ancient Chinese calligraphers did not write neatly inside grids. They did the art with a natural and peaceful mind. The work was not to be confined or measured. It is said that a student of Zhong Yao tried to write neatly in one size, then he was so scorned by his teacher that he dared not see him for three years.

It was until the time (approximately the Tang Dynasty) when people began to use Chinese calligraphy as a means to gain positions of government officers and be recognized by the judges in the civil service examinations that they began to write neatly or inside grids. Some of those styles are called Guan Ge Te (  閣體 , the monotonous court style of calligraphy ). The term 館閣體 refers to a "trend" or a "temperament" of writing neatly and monotonously without spirit rather than a major style or a sub style of Chinese calligraphy. 館閣體 look neat but lack spiritual and philosophical depth. They have never been seriously regarded by Chinese calligraphers or scholars. Every character in "Guan Ge Te" looks like the same without obvious variations in size, expression, strokes, and writing speed. The invention of 館閣體 was one of the starting points when Chinese calligraphy began to fade in artistic levels! Today if we don’t write neatly, we may not get a reward in most contests. People eventually forget the original state of Nature and mind. There are no identical leaves, trees, and mountains in Nature. And we just begin to separate ourselves away from Nature!

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The first and second works possess enormous beauty and more spirit while the third one looks more man-made and confined.


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Writing Speed

Modern Chinese calligraphy contests usually require the contestants finish their works in a limited time span. Most audiences will be astonished by a “fast” calligrapher with a fluent and stunning speed in a public demonstration.

Our eyes may deceive us. When we watch an airplane and a car moving, can our eyes tell us which is moving faster? Time is relative, not absolute. It depends on the observer’s position.

Not only Chinese calligraphy adopts the importance of “slow practice” which is quite contrary to the public notion. Carl Tausig, Franz Liszt’s favorite and number one student, would play every piece, every note and detail very, very slowly again on the piano right after each concert. He was such a brilliant pianist that his master and colleagues gave him the highest compliments. It was said that until his death Tausig had no equal.  The Chinese internal martial artists also have a saying, “Slow is fast!”

Every masterpiece of the “Bei School  ” stone rubbings shows us that the ancient calligrapher had gone through a lengthy process of meditation and mental design. When they were commissioned to do a great work for the emperors, scholars, or important events, they would go home practicing again and again, contemplate for months, design and improve mentally over and over until they reached their best level that are mostly unsurpassed by later calligraphers in that particular style. And when they wrote, they did it with all due submission and respect, their works become the learning models for over thousands of years.


A work produced after weeks or months of preparation looks more stable and rich in spirit.



A work done in a shorter time possessed less depth in spirit and essence.


This is why I do not have a fully commercialized website to sell my works promptly with features that the customers can choose "any" desired phrase, length, width, style, and fast delivery to fit in today’s Internet business. By doing this catering, I believe it’s against the legacy and spirit of Chinese calligraphy. I deeply appreciate those with their respect, understanding, and patience from the bottom of my heart.

The topic of speed in doing Chinese calligraphy is somewhat metaphysical, especially considering the mental design, Gee & Se, and many other physical, technical, and spiritual factors. It might not be understood from the speed or velocity as in physics or sciences. Science can never measure the "speed" and "quantity" of a mother's love. According to some Chinese calligraphers in our time, we agree the writing speed of the calligraphers in the Jin and Tang Dynasties (the golden eras of Chinese calligraphy) were moderate, not hurrying. It means that their speed was neither fast nor slow, could be either fast and slow, or anything in between, transcendental, or metaphysical. A mere bragging of one's ability to write certain number of Chinese characters per minute or per hour is evidently showing one's lack of real knowledge and skills of Chinese brush arts, where these may happen often among amateurs, beginners, and pedants who have read many Chinese calligraphy books from libraries.


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Content of Calligraphy

People want their desired content more than the artistic level in a Chinese calligraphy work.

Most Chinese and non-Chinese both prefer to choose something more meaningful to them rather than the level of the art itself. It’s not right to ask people to change their attitude of what they are looking for. What we can do here is to enhance the public consciousness and knowledge of what a traditional and authentic Chinese calligraphy work appears to be in terms of its artistic level.  

Chinese calligraphy uses Chinese characters as its only medium of expression. Unless you also practice Chinese calligraphy,  a viewer does not have to know Chinese to appreciate its beauty because Chinese calligraphy is an abstract art. When viewing Chinese calligraphy, one need not ask, "What do those Chinese writing mean?", "What is this style?" or even "Who did this?" In viewing a beautiful work, one does not necessarily ask or worry about "What is it?" Just relax and look at them for enjoyment and let the Art of Chinese Calligraphy sooth our mind, except that you are studying this art very seriously.

Most Chinese poems and calligraphy masterpieces were articles that are not at all related to our modern life.  They were written in Classical Chinese Style (Wen Yen Wen  文言文 ) and need to be deciphered or translated into Plain Conversation Style (Bai Hua Wen 白話文 ). Some of the calligraphy masterpieces were ancient and rare poems and they presented to us the depth of beauty within. Most of the famous poets in ancient China were not necessarily great calligraphers while most calligraphers’ poems were not very well known compared to those of famous poets. However, the calligraphers wrote their articles or letters according to the “genre” that best fitted into the realms of Chinese calligraphy in terms of the selection and sequence of Chinese characters. The ancient Chinese calligraphers and scholars did favor some characters and used them frequently. They might have disliked some characters and they rarely or never used in their writing or calligraphy. For example, in ancient China, people wrote in classical Chinese. The English words “you” or “thou” can be translated into “ ”, “ “ or ” .”  The ancient Chinese rarely wrote ” .”  And ancient calligraphers almost never wrote ”“. Instead, in classical Chinese it was usually written as “ ” and “ “ while ancient calligraphers mostly favored “ .” Even though those three characters mean the same “you,” calligraphers preferred  ” to ” ” for artistic reasons. If you have learned Tsao Style, you will understand why.

Just like a composer likes to use certain methods in counterpoint or harmony to create a musical phrase, there are some methods or forms that some composers do not like to use. A Beethoven piano sonata was to be played on the piano, not meant to be played on the violin or by the symphony by the composer though people have freedom for rearragenment. To some degree, Chinese calligraphy will best fit in the genre of ancient Chinese articles or poems rather than any words from commercial or political campaign in terms of artistic level and depth.


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Clear Rubbings and Models

Most beginners want to choose clearer, amended, "restored," or enhanced versions of stone rubbings (  ) instead of the earlier and original ones that are faithfully rubbed, duplicated, and printed.

Most beginners do not have an idea of what the original rubbings of ancient characters look like. Some rubbings are so vague that is beyond reading. Publishers thus amend or make up (they prefer to call "restore") clearer versions of rubbings to cater the beginner’s mind and preference for convenience.

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If we look closely and examine the details in the bottom row of the above samples, we will find nuances and details being changed by the publisher. The publishers are not necessarily calligraphers. Even if they are, any amending in any kind, no matter how small or nuanced, will destroy or distort the original spirit and probably the positions, strokes, and thickness to some extent since Chinese and calligraphy theorists consider Chinese calligraphy as "heart print" of "the track of heart." Those "restored" versions are merely camouflage. Even if you are just a beginner or a non-Chinese, be sure to choose the original and earlier version over the “clearer and amended” version. It’s permissible to buy both “original” and “amended” versions for comparison. But only the “original” version can be used for Lin Mo practice.

However, if you are not a Chinese and just start learning Chinese language and/or calligraphy, it’s okay for you to use this kind of “amended” or “clearer” rubbings. As you have made more progress, it’s advisable that you stay away from those versions and get the real and faithful ones.


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Life of A Brush

Most people assert that a brush will last for an average of few years, probably one or two if you practice diligently. When I started learning Chinese calligraphy, I practiced diligently with only one brush for one style. I did not know how to take care of it by washing it properly. And of course, I did not know any theories or principles of operating a brush. All I knew were some basic rules my teacher taught me. So I ended up changing a brush every year.

As I grew up, I eventually began to have a better habit of writing. So it seemed that my brushes lasted longer than when I was in grade school. And then in high school when I became more devoted, I used only one "all-around" brush (Jian Hao , a combination brush) to practice all styles I knew. Eventually it lasted shorter than any brush I had.

Then as I read and knew more and more about the theories, operating principles, and styles, my brushes I bought since 1990 are still in excellent conditions.  None of them are short-lived again! (I do prefer some of them and dislike some of them.) Since I know the proper operation and maintenance of brushes, I no longer worry that they will wear out soon. I do believe they will last lifetime or at least decades. Even though some of them are wearing out at the tip a little bit due to frequent practice, I can still use those as featured brushes to write other styles with a desirable effect or explore and experiment different possibilities such as the textures in brush painting.

Unless a brush is made low grade, I will say a brush should last lifetime if we know how to respect it and apply the Center Tip Principle (    ). I suggest washing every time right after every practice – gently and respectfully.


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Seals & Signatures (Last modified: 2013.4.24)

Some people think that a Chinese calligraphy or painting work should be signed and stamped with seals, at least to prevent future holders to sign it. 

The writing of a Chinese calligraphy work is the "main content" of the work itself. The signatures and seals personalize the work. Mounting ( 裝裱 ) is for display and preservation purposes. According to the perspectives of Chinese culture such as 主次分明, we may think of the main calligraphy content as the host, the signature and seals as the guests, and the frame or the mounted scroll as a hall or a house. A perfect party will consist a noble host, decent guests, and a majestic hall. A good Chinese calligraphy work will be more valuable if it can meet the above three conditions. 

However, the main content is the most important and the signature and seals are the most critical. We may consider having an outdoor party with good programs, the host, and visitors without staying in a building. But if we invite vulgar guests to the party, the main event will be totally ruined. It's recommended that a good Chinese calligraphy work be framed or mounted according to the Chinese notion of 佛要金裝,人要衣裝. If the frame or the mounted scroll is poor or vulgar, it will totally devalue the entire work no matter how great the calligraphy and seals are. If the mounting and (or) the seals exceed the main content in artistic levels, they will add more value to the calligraphy. However, if either the mounting or the seals are not good enough to match the calligraphy's level, that work will absolutely be demeaned. This is why famous calligrapainting masters always have a good business relationship with professional and reliable mounters ( 裝裱師傅 ) and seal carvers, or they have learned to mount calligrapainting and carve seals themselves.

Similarly, if a Chinese painting work contains a poem written in nice calligraphy and is stamped with nice seals, it's the perfect combination of Chinese calligraphy, painting, seals, and literature. (That's one of the reasons why Chinese calligraphy, painting, and seal making are sister arts.) But if any one of the three add-ons (calligraphy, seal, or poem) is below the painter's level a lot, it will ruin the whole work no matter how great the painting is!

In early dynasties like Han, calligraphers did not care so much about personalizing their works. In fact, many of the best ancient masterpieces remained anonymous. The original artists realized the cosmic harmony existed in the nature and many things were not created or personally owned by the artists individually. They cared for the level of art more than personal recognition. This great philosophy is different from modern and Western way of signing and personalizing an artwork. I was once asked by people who do not know Chinese culture, philosophy, and calligraphy about leaving a Chinese painting or calligraphy work unsigned or anonymous. They doubt that if a Chinese painter or calligrapher does not sign his / her work, later it may be possessed by someone who signs it and sell for higher prices! (What a joke and honor! Once when a famous Chinese painter found out  there were more forgeries of his work in the market than his real work he painted himself, he said, "it's plausible to create fake imitations or duplicates of a deceased master, but I am still alive!" ) That "someone" must possess at least the same artistic (calligraphic) and moral levels of the original artist in order to sign a painting or calligraphy work without totally destroying its value. "Someone" who has reached a high level, of course, need not sign other's works - they can create their own good works! So if a Chinese painting or calligraphy work is good and anonymous, the original artist may have realized the ancient philosophy of "Not Possessing" even though it may not be compatible with today's business concepts. 

The following articles are not written by Joshua; I did not make those rules. Nor does anyone have authority to dictate those rules or norms to everyone who does Chinese calligraphy and painting. IMHO and according to my other art friends' opinions, these "summarized" norms and/or rules are meant to be observed and deserve attentions, and better not to be violated (with certain exceptions in some special situations) to invoke jokes or ridicules from experts or connoisseurs of Chinese calligrapainting.

The rules and norms are adapted from Chinese books and various Internet sources. You may use Google Advanced Search to find out how many Chinese Websites have articles containing these norms or rules regarding using Chinese seals on Chinese calligrapainting and how many English Websites talk about these norms and/or rules. A good way to verify this is to search "一方形,一圓形,不可匹配" or other short Chinese phrases in the following articles in Google Advanced Search. It is certainly true that a native Chinese, whether practicing Chinese calligraphy and painting or not, may not have heard those rules and norms during his lifetime... This is analogous to that people in certain parts of the world learning different languages may not be able to imagine the differences of grammar or syntax between English, Russian, Chinese, and other languages. What we have not heard or imagined does not mean certain things do not exist.  



A teacher talks about dating, signing and using seals according to traditional norms



A teacher talks about signing and using seals at the right locations of a work




Some paragraphs are translated into English "literally" by me. To maintain objectivity, I have tried to remain faithful to the original Chinese texts except correcting some of the typos or changing punctuations to be more readable.

If you are doing so-called Modern Chinese Calligraphy or Modern Chinese Painting in innovative approaches or Xieyi styles, you may or may not need to observe some or most of the norms listed below. But if you are doing Chinese calligrapainting in traditional approach or with classical spirit, you need to pay attention to those rules; otherwise, experts and connoisseurs ( 鑒賞家 ) will ridicule your work if you unknowingly violate some of the “general” (but not absolute) norms. Sometimes they just laugh in their heart or smile without giving you any compliment - they remain honest and polite, but not diligent  – they don’t tell you exactly which norms have not been observed, especially when it is not possible to explain many topics in a short conversation.






Kinds of Seals 
(Translated from the Chinese texts adopted by many seal carving masters.)

名章 (Name Seals)

Name Seals represent the artist's names (family and/or given names) and style names. Each Chinese calligrapher, painter, or poet ... may have more than one style name. Name Seals are stamped below the poem and signature in a calligrapainting work. If there are two or more Name Seals in a work, the balance of Ying and Yang needs to be considered; the sizes of the seals need to be similar; the distance between seals needs to be at least the size of one of the seals stamped. Name Seals can also be used as "Hand Seals." Name Seals are usually square in shape because they have more serious meaning.
(Some modern Chinese painters use round shaped seals consisting their family names.)


A list of Style Names and Studio Names of Chinese Painters


閑章 (Mood Seals, literally Leisure Seals)

Mood Seals enriches the whole view of a work. They can be decorative and bring balance to the whole work. The contents of Mood Seals are mostly related to the artist's taste, preference, the main content of the work in regarding to phrases or images, the time, year, and mood when the work is created, the implied meaning of the work, and etc. 

Joshua’s comments: The contents of the Mood Seals need match the contents of calligrapainting work. You cannot paint a love scene with a man and a woman dating in a beautiful landscape with relaxed and romantic mood and then stamp Mood Seals that say something politically like “Fight for your country with loyalty to the end of war” or “Destroy your corrupt government with justice” or "Practice martial arts with endurance and strong will." Many people today (not only beginners or non-Chinese) eagerly want to show off their seals by stamping as many as possible on their work without considering the factors listed here. Redundancy, mismatches, impolite implications, and wrong locations are the most commonly seen errors of using seals on Chinese calligrapainting. Of all kinds of seals, Mood Seals are usually one of the most abused seals on Chinese calligraphy and painting.


根據用印的位置又可將閑章分為三類 Mood Seals can be further categorized into the following types according to the locations where they are stamped on a work: 

1. 引首章 (Leading Seals):用于作品的右上方,與落款相呼應,又與畫面融為一體,因此多以自然形為主。
Leading Seals are usually placed at the top right corner of a work. It can be coordinated with the signature and Name Seals. It will also bring "wholeness" to the painting. They have shapes like rectangle, oval, and etc. that look more natural. (
落款 includes the signature, dating, greeting, and/or description by the calligrapher or painter. )

If you gift your calligrapainting to others and write the recipient’s name on the top right corner, you may not stamp your Leading Seal above the recipient’s name because this imply that you are looking down on him/her according to Chinese culture’s perspective – Chinese will most likely consider it as an insult! The proper ways are: you may either write the recipient’s name on the left side and stamp your Leading Seal on the right, or write the recipient’s name on the top right corner and stamp your Leading Seal below his/her name in an appropriate spot. We also need to consider the philosophical implications and spacing of Heaven, Earth, and Man in Chinese calligrapainting when using seals.

2. 壓角章 (Corner Seals):用于作品下方的一個角上,起降低畫面重心、穩定畫面的作用,以方形或長方形為主。
Corner Seals are usually stamped on the corner near the bottom of the work. They can lower the weight percentage  of the whole picture for balance. Their shapes are mainly square or rectangle.

3. 腰章 (Connecting Seals, literally Waist Seals):作品中間部位所用章。比較長的作品,視覺上的首尾不能相及,用一腰章能起到連接首尾的作用。多用長條或隨形章。
Connecting Seals are usually stamped near the middle of the work or between different sections of the work. A longer or larger work somewhat looks disconnected from the start to the end. If the Connecting Seal(s) can be used properly, they can make the whole picture look more connected. They are mainly in the shape of rectangular bar or in other shapes.


收藏章 (Collector's Seals)用于書籍等私人收藏。方形、圓形都可,偶爾也有隨形印面要大小適中,以免造成對藏品畫面的破壞。
Collector's Seals are for private collections of books and artworks. They can be in any shape like rectangle, round, and etc. The size of Collector's Seals need to be appropriate so the whole picture will not look strange.


手章 (Hand Seals)指簽署文件、契約等用的私人印信。章面要小,字體要規範。
Hand Seals are stamped after the signatures for documents and contracts. The scripts of Hand Seals are usually more normalized.



The signatures and seal stamps on Chinese painting and calligraphy works follow strict or general norms and traditions. If they are violated, a work will be mocked or demeaned because it is considered ignorant and impolite in the eyes of cultured Chinese. It is sad that the majority of calligraphers and painters today seem to neglect those norms. 




用印時,如用兩方印,古法是白文與白文合用、朱文與朱文合用; 近世則朱白文合用,普通為白文印在上、朱文印在下,有名有字,即為對章。在畫幅中用印時,尤需注意印之距離與高低,如寫七言的對聯,下聯落款宜在第三字與第四字之間,而用印則應視款字的大小而定,若印為一寸大小,用兩方印時,兩方印相距應一寸左右,過遠過近均不甚雅。如寫一幀單條,則落款必須在主文左下方,但不可太靠下方,不然,與主文平腳,則印無法鈐蓋,即使留有一印之空白,將印鈐蓋其上,亦必不適宜。書畫落款固然重要,而鈐印則視款之高低而定,如落款不小心,過於低落,可以把印鈐在姓名左邊,使豔紅的顏色,襯於黧黑之中,便可反俗為雅



(摘自王北岳篆刻藝術 Adapted from Wang Bei-Yue's Art of Seal Carving)


Taboos of Signatures & Using Seals on Chinese Calligrapainting


















Seals carved with machines cannot be used on Chinese calligrapainting. We need to use seal stones carved by artists.



Cheap seal paste associated with machine carved seals or commonly used in business offices cannot be used on Chinese calligrapainting. We need to use authentic seal paste - in Chinese we call it 篆刻印泥 .







If you gift your calligrapainting to others and write the recipient’s name on the top right corner, you may not stamp your Leading Seal above the recipient’s name because this imply that you are looking down on him/her according to Chinese culture’s perspective – Chinese will most likely consider it as an insult! 

The proper ways are: you may either write the recipient’s name on the left side and stamp your Leading Seal on the right, or write the recipient’s name on the top right corner and stamp your Leading Seal below his/her name in an appropriate spot. 




蓋壓角閑章,不可蓋二方上,一方正好。印與邊距離 about 1.5 or 2 cm 適合。





(Except for ancient emperors, don't put an extra large seal in the top middle portion of the calligrapainting. If you do that, people think you are arrogant or self-centered, or just ignorant! If you want to mimic this as some ancient calligrapainters did, try to improve your calligrapainting skills and knowledge first before others give negative comments.)


Generally, 小畫不可題大字,大畫不可題小字。小空不可題字多,大空不可題字少。




(Many laymen like to put as many seals as possible on their work to show off without considering or knowing those norms and general rules...)





Many people today apply excessive pressures and forces when stamping seals on calligrapainting in inappropriate ways which are commonly seen in public. This lady explains in logical ways why those ways are not so correct or simply wrong when we also consider the correct ways to protect the fibers of the seal paste and to "maintain the oil quality and level."









The following sources provide excellent articles and examples for signatures and seals.


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"Erasure is an unacceptable mistake: If we do this, our work won’t be accepted or sold."

Ancient calligraphers did not care so much about erasing or covering a wrong character with a right one. They did this naturally and the work looked even more enlivened. While in our modern time, if any Chinese calligraphy stroke is covered with another one, the work will probably never win a contest or be sold. "Erasure" (or covering one stroke or character with another stroke or character) as shown in the following example is totally different from "amending or retouches" (repeating a stroke.) While a retouches or repeating a Chinese calligraphy stroke is considered a camouflage and dishonest, "erasure" is considered a change of content. ("Erasure" here does not mean to scratch off the strokes or characters to be changed.) "Erasure" does not violate the rule that the brush writing should come directly from one's mind and real skill. While an amended brush stroke can be easily told by experts because it shows evidences of inconsistent ink densities, "erasure" honestly tells the viewers that the "contents" of the calligraphy have been changed and they are not related to one's brush stroke skills. (In Chinese calligraphy contests, judges sometimes use magnifiers to look for inconsistent ink densities as evidences of retouches and get rid of those candidates.) 

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Preface to the Orchid Pavilion Collection (Lang Ting Prologue) is the most famous Chinese calligraphy work by Wang Xizhi. It contains more erasures than most other works! The erasures here are to change the content of the article, not to amend the calligraphy strokes. Amending strokes is not permissible for an honest calligrapher and anyone who practices Chinese calligraphy. 


Another famous work full of "erasures" was written by Yen Jen-Chin in lamentation of his nephew being killed in a military riot. During writing this Eulogy for a Nephew, he was so sad about his nephew's death and had no intent to make it an artistic calligraphy work, and he even struck out thirty-four characters. However, this work is generally considered the "second best" cursive style calligraphy throughout the history of China! (Second only to Preface to the Orchid Pavilion Collection .) Viewers may feel his emotional intensity through his masculine, determined, agitated yet skillful brush strokes. While some beginners may think this work is full of mess and erasures and question why it is being collected in the National Palace of Museum in Taipei, the Chinese people look for the spirit and intrinsic substance over the extrinsic forms and neatness in a masterful work like this.


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Number of Times required to Emulate a Model


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