Ching Dynasty (1644 - 1911)
1722, Chu Xian published eight volumes of “Inn Dien” (Seal Dictionaries.)
These are highly regarded as a new systematic analysis and study of seal making.
An imperial seal was a seal that the emperor used to indicate that a certain document was written in his own handwriting. Emperor Chian Long (1711-1799), for example, was famous for his literary achievements including calligraphy and had produced a large amount of texts affixed with his seal. When his calligraphy was carved into stone steles, the seal was copied onto the surface of the stone too.
of Emperor Chian Long”
A Collector’s Seal was used by the emperors or artists to appraise and appreciate art. It was customary for collectors and connoisseurs of art to affix their seals on the surface of a scroll of painting or calligraphy to prove the authenticity.
|A Collector’s Seal of An Emperor||A
the Ching period, most official seals were bilingual with the Chinese
inscription on the right side and the Manchu on the left.
the later period of the Ching
Dynasty, painting, calligraphy, and seal making were influenced by the “Jin
Shu” studies, the research of ancient inscriptions. This brought new vigor and
interest to the art. Famous Zuan Shu calligraphers like Deng Thu-Ru, Wu
Run-Chih, and Zhao Chih-Chian were also good at seal making.
1904, "Xi Leng Seals Society" was organized. This was the first group
in China to publish books and scores of seals. Later in 1913, Wu Tsun-Shuo
became the first president of the Society.
seal engravers of the Ching Dynasty
included the following artists. Most of them were also great calligraphers and
names: Deng Won-Bai, Deng Won-Bo
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Wu Run-Chih (1799-1870)
He was the first one to use Wei Bei for seal engraving at the side.
鄧完白 吳讓之 之後,別具面貌,用筆姿媚而力勢遒勁。篆刻早期受浙皖兩派影響,後來以秦漢為法,所作白文,深厚板重,朱文則仍有完白山人逸趣,渾樸雖不能及,然善於取勢,變化多而傳神,突破秦漢璽印的範疇,自成一格。
Huang Mu-Fu, aka Huang Shu-Ling (1849-1908)
The first nine phrases of Buddhist “Heart Scripture”
Wu Tsun-Shuo (1844-1927)
Chi Bai-Thu (1844-1957)
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